Diagnosis of Brain Cancer By Using Proteomics Approaches

Brain cancer (also known as malignant brain tumor, in medical definitions), is the most threatening cancer among all the cancers in humans. By using various proteomics approaches, we can easily detect as well as analysis the effect of specific genetic events involved in malignant brain cancer progression.

In proteomics, we generally study the proteomes. A proteome can be called as a protein compliment of a genome.

Malignant brain tumors are generally classified in four grades, according to their complexity or on the basis of their physical appearance under the microscope.

Grade 1, term generally used when brain cells show their physical appearance similar to normal cells. Simply, it is like a benign tissue or cells.

In grade 2, more malignant cells start for proliferation. In grade 3, they are likely to grow rapidly and start to invade in nearly located normal cells. This situation is called as anaplastic, in medical terminology.

In grade 4, (generally termed as most abnormal cells), cancer cells can break away from the tumors and start to spreading out, may be to other parts of the brain or to spinal cord.

Generally, brain cancer cells have a wide range of abnormal proteins. They express altered genetic potential of a cancer cell. These are the relevant examples of genetically modified proteins as well as regulated proteins after their synthesis.

Interpretation of the genetic level modification in various types of brain cancers i.e. brain stem glioma, ependymoma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, oligodendroglioma, meningioma, can be easily done by using miscellaneous tools of proteomics. These distinct techniques basically act on the modification property of that abnormal cancer protein i.e. extracted from a particular malignant tumor cell.

These modifications are copious in post-translation mechanism such as cleavage of proenzyme and precursor part of abnormal proteins; phosphorylation activities interfere with biophysical appearance & signaling; hydroxylation changes in H-bonding atmosphere; glycosylation infers to molecular recognitions (or cell-cell recognition) and acetylation alters the binding affinity with DNA.

High throughput proteomics test or tools are available to circumvent some earlier caveats. For instance, advanced tools and techniques of proteomics i.e. two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), mass spectroscopy (MS), enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), can aptly deal with complexities of the proteome arise because most of the proteins appear to be modified.

New bio-engineered proteomics approaches have enabled the analysis of various brain cancer biomarkers. A compendious interpretation of the pertinence of each brain cancer biomarker will be very helpful in detecting the level or variant context of that particular malignant cell.

Research on cancer biomarkers will explore the new ways to get choices related to various therapeutic alternatives. Eventually, it will represent new biological approaches in the upcoming clinical research era or the quick detection of brain cancer.


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